Latino Overview

National Data

In 2014, there were 55.3 million Latinos in the United States, representing 17.0% of the total U.S. population. 318 Between 2013 and 2014, the Latino population increased by 1.15 million. 319

In the years between the last two decennial censuses (2000 and 2010), the Latino population increased by 43.0%, while the non-Latino population increased by 4.9%. In addition, Latinos accounted for 55.5% of all population growth in the U.S. from 2000 to 2010.320 321 322 The U.S. Census Bureau found that more than half of the growth between 2000 and 2010 is in direct correlation with the Latino growth. 323

Mexicans were the largest Latino sub-group (64%), followed by Puerto Ricans (10.0%), Cubans (4.0%), Salvadorans (4.0%), Dominicans (3.0%), Guatemalans (2.0%), and Hondurans (2.0%). 324

In 2014, 76.7% of Latinos were citizens of the United States (65.0% were native born and 11.7% were naturalized). 325 Altogether, 35.0% of all Latinos were foreign born. 326 By 2060, the Census projects that the Latino population will grow to 119 million, reflecting 28.6% of the U.S. population and a growth rate of 115.0%. 327

Furthermore, the Census projects that non-Whites (meaning Latinos, Blacks, Asians, American Indians, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders) will collectively outnumber all non-Hispanic Whites by 2042 and by 2060, 1 out of every 5 in the United States will be foreign born. 328

In 2010, 69 U.S. cities had a Latino population of 200,000 or more. Some of these minority-majority cities included many of the country’s largest cities: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, Phoenix, San Antonio, San Diego, and Dallas. 329

38.4 million, or 73.3%, of Latinos 5 years of age and older spoke Spanish at home. 330 In particular, 56.6% spoke English “very well”, 17.6% spoke English “well”, 16.6% spoke English “not well”, and 9.2% spoke English “not at all.” 331

Additionally, the median age of Latinos was 28.4 years compared to 40.4 years for Whites. 32.4% of Latinos were under 18 years of age, compared to 21.3% of White non-Hispanics. 332 333 In total, Latinos comprise 24.3% of all persons under the age of 18. 334

Of Latinos 25-years of age and older, 34.7% had less than a high school diploma (compared to 11.2% of Whites), 27.2% had a high school diploma, GED, or alternative credential (compared to 28.0% of Whites), 23.8% had some college or an Associate’s degree (compared to 29.4% of Whites), 9.9% had a Bachelor’s degree (compared to 19.5% of Whites), and 4.5% had a Graduate degree (compared to 11.8% of Whites). 335

In 2014 inflation-adjusted dollars, median household incomes totaled $42,748 for Latinos and $60,256 for Whites. 336

23.5% of Latinos were uninsured, compared to 10.4% of White non-Hispanics. 337

45.0% of Latino households were owner occupied (compared to 68.5% of White households) and 55.0% were renter occupied (compared to 31.5% of White households). 338

5.6% of Latinos were unemployed, compared to 3.8% of Whites. 339

Currently, there are three Latinos serving in the United States Senate—Senators Marco Rubio (R) of Florida, Robert Menendez (D) of New Jersey, and Ted Cruz (R) of Texas. Of the three, two (Rubio and Cruz) are vying to represent the Republican party during the 2016 presidential election. In addition, there are twenty-nine Latinos serving in the United States House of Representatives (including two non-voting delegates) and two Latinos serving as Governors (Governors Brian Sandoval of Nevada and Susana Martinez of New Mexico).

At the state level, there were 352 Latinos serving in state legislatures in 2013-2014. 350

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

Historically, voters register and vote in greater numbers during presidential election years than during congressional election years. 351 For example, 11.2 million Latinos voted during the 2012 presidential election, which was an increase of 1.4 million Latino voters from the 2008 presidential election. The 2012 voting rate for Latinos was 48.0%, compared to a rate of 64.1% for White non-Hispanics. 352 During the presidential elections that took place in 2004, 2008, and 2012, Latino voting numbers grew from 6.0% (2004) to 7.4% (2008) to 8.4% (2012). 353

NON-PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

During the November 2014 election, 6.8 million Latinos voted, indicating a voter increase of 129,000 from the November 2010 election. The Latino voting rate for the 2014 election was 27.0%, compared to 45.8% for White non-Hispanics. 354 During the non-presidential elections that took place in 2005,2010, and 2014, the Latino voting population grew from 5.8% (2005) to 6.9% (2010) to 7.3% (2014). 355

Since 1978, the number of Latinos voting in congressional elections has traditionally lagged behind the numbers of their non-Hispanic white counterparts. 356 Roughly 11.6 million Latinos registered to vote in 2008, compared to the 10.9 million who registered in 2010. With 6.8 million Latinos turning out to vote in 2014, the gap between Latino voter registration and Latino voter turnout was over 4.4 million, which was the highest recorded discrepancy in the last four decades. 357

Of the Latinos who voted in November 2014, 45.0% were women, 90.1% were between the ages of 45-64 years old, 33.2% were naturalized citizens, 31.4% had an Associate’s Degree or higher, and 53.5% were Mexican. 358

It is customary for the number of registered voters to decline between presidential and non-presidential election year cycles. It is equally important to emphasize that Latino voter registration dropped from 11.6 million in 2008 to 10.9 million in 2010 and from 13.7 million in 2012 to 12.9 million in 2014. 359

The number of Latino-owned businesses in the United States grew 46.3% over a 5-year period, climbing from 2,260,309 in 2007 to 3,307,197 in 2012. 368 369

In 2012, receipts for Latino-owned businesses totaled $517,362,008, representing an increase of 47.5% from 2007 and a total of $350,661,243. 370 371 Additionally, 288,826 Latino-owned businesses had paid employees, totaling 2.3 million employees with an annual payroll of $68.5 billion. 372

In 2014, the Latino purchasing power in the United States equaled $1.3 trillion, which was a ten year gain of 155%. Latino buying power is continuing to grow at a faster rate than that of their African-American counterparts, but still less than their Asian counterparts. 373 374

By the year 2019, it is projected that Latinos will represent 10.6% of the U.S. buying power. This historic growth is largely attributed to factors like higher birth rates, immigration numbers, and an increase in Latino-owned businesses. 375

In 2010, the Latino population was 50,477,594. Currently, it is estimated at 55,387,539, reflecting an annual growth rate of 1.2 million per year. 395 396

The Latino population increased by 7 million from 1980 to 1990, representing 6.4% of the total U.S. population and reflecting a growth rate of 245.5% (compared to 36.5% for the general population). From 1990 to 2000, Latinos grew to by 13 million and by 15 million from 2000 to 2010. In 2010, they represented 16.3% of the population. Presently, Latinos represent 17.0% of the population. 397 398

From 2010 to 2014, the Latino population increased by an additional 4.6 million, representing 17% of the general population and reflecting a growth rate of 9.7%. By comparison, the general population only grew by 3.3%. 399 400

Between 1980 to 2010, the Latino population growth rate was 245.5%, compared to a 36.5% growth rate for the general population. From 2010 to 2014, the Latino population grew 9.7%, while in comparison, the general population increased by 3.3%. 401 402 403

STATES WITH LATINO POPULATION OF 500,000 OR MORE

Over the past decade, Latino population growth rates have skyrocketed across the United States. This is largely due to rising birth and immigration rates. Currently, there are 18 states (up from 16 in 2012) that have a Latino population of 500,000 or more, which accounts for 88.1% of the total Latino population. The 18 states are listed below:

STATES WITH OVER 50% LATINO POPULATION GROWTH

From 1990 to 2000, 25 states experienced an increase of 50% or more in the Latino population. In 2010, the number of states increased to 37 and by 2014, the number grew to 45. 404

The socio-economic and political implications of Latino population growth are numerous, particularly in states that are experiencing an influx of immigrants. Change occurs as immigrants settle into states, become legal permanent residents or naturalized citizens, and register to vote in U.S. elections.

For states with significant populations of African Americans, Asians, and progressive whites, Latino population growth can be incredibly impactful on the political dynamic at the city, state, and national levels. By creating viable electoral coalitions, the nation will experience political transformation, as well as social and economic empowerment.

Some other notable facts:

  • The West is the region with the largest population of Latinos (40.2%) 405
  • Mexicans are the largest Latino group (64.1%). 406
  • Mexicans are also the dominant Latino group in 33 states. 407
  • Latinos are the largest minority in 26 states. 408
  • Ethnic/racial minorities make up the majority in 115 cities that have a total population of 200,000 or more. 409

U.S. POPULATION BY RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN 2020-2050

Current projections have highlighted Latinos as the third fastest growing population in the United States. 410 Latinos are expected to exceed 60 million by 2020 and hit 119 million by 2060, which means that Latinos will represent 28.6% of the total population. Non-Hispanic Whites will continue declining for the 3rd straight decade, while Latinos will continue on their 11th continuous decade of continuous growth; both of these trends are irreversible. 411 412 413

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POPULATION

In 2014, there were 55.3 million Latinos in the United States, representing 17.0% of the total U.S. population. 119 Between 2013 and 2014, the Latino population increased by 1.15 million. 120

In the years between the last two decennial censuses (2000 and 2010), the Latino population increased by 43.0%, while the non-Latino population increased by 4.9%. In addition, Latinos accounted for 55.5% of all population growth in the U.S. from 2000 to 2010.121 122 123 The U.S. Census Bureau found that more than half of the growth between 2000 and 2010 is in direct correlation with the Latino growth. 124

Mexicans were the largest Latino sub-group (64%), followed by Puerto Ricans (10.0%), Cubans (4.0%), Salvadorans (4.0%), Dominicans (3.0%), Guatemalans (2.0%), and Hondurans (2.0%). 125

In 2014, 76.7% of Latinos were citizens of the United States (65.0% were native born and 11.7% were naturalized). 126 Altogether, 35.0% of all Latinos were foreign born. 127 By 2060, the Census projects that the Latino population will grow to 119 million, reflecting 28.6% of the U.S. population and a growth rate of 115.0%. 128

Furthermore, the Census projects that non-Whites (meaning Latinos, Blacks, Asians, American Indians, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders) will collectively outnumber all non-Hispanic Whites by 2042 and by 2060, 1 out of every 5 in the United States will be foreign born. 129

In 2010, 69 U.S. cities had a Latino population of 200,000 or more. Some of these minority-majority cities included many of the country’s largest cities: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, Phoenix, San Antonio, San Diego, and Dallas. 130

38.4 million, or 73.3%, of Latinos 5 years of age and older spoke Spanish at home. 131 In particular, 56.6% spoke English “very well”, 17.6% spoke English “well”, 16.6% spoke English “not well”, and 9.2% spoke English “not at all.” 132

Additionally, the median age of Latinos was 28.4 years compared to 40.4 years for Whites. 32.4% of Latinos were under 18 years of age, compared to 21.3% of White non-Hispanics. 133 134 In total, Latinos comprise 24.3% of all persons under the age of 18. 135

Of Latinos 25-years of age and older, 34.7% had less than a high school diploma (compared to 11.2% of Whites), 27.2% had a high school diploma, GED, or alternative credential (compared to 28.0% of Whites), 23.8% had some college or an Associate’s degree (compared to 29.4% of Whites), 9.9% had a Bachelor’s degree (compared to 19.5% of Whites), and 4.5% had a Graduate degree (compared to 11.8% of Whites). 136

In 2014 inflation-adjusted dollars, median household incomes totaled $42,748 for Latinos and $60,256 for Whites. 137

23.5% of Latinos were uninsured, compared to 10.4% of White non-Hispanics. 138

45.0% of Latino households were owner occupied (compared to 68.5% of White households) and 55.0% were renter occupied (compared to 31.5% of White households). 139

5.6% of Latinos were unemployed, compared to 3.8% of Whites. 140

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POLITICS

Currently, there are three Latinos serving in the United States Senate—Senators Marco Rubio (R) of Florida, Robert Menendez (D) of New Jersey, and Ted Cruz (R) of Texas. Of the three, two (Rubio and Cruz) are vying to represent the Republican party during the 2016 presidential election. In addition, there are twenty-nine Latinos serving in the United States House of Representatives (including two non-voting delegates) and two Latinos serving as Governors (Governors Brian Sandoval of Nevada and Susana Martinez of New Mexico).

At the state level, there were 352 Latinos serving in state legislatures in 2013-2014. 141

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

Historically, voters register and vote in greater numbers during presidential election years than during congressional election years. 142 For example, 11.2 million Latinos voted during the 2012 presidential election, which was an increase of 1.4 million Latino voters from the 2008 presidential election. The 2012 voting rate for Latinos was 48.0%, compared to a rate of 64.1% for White non-Hispanics. 143 During the presidential elections that took place in 2004, 2008, and 2012, Latino voting numbers grew from 6.0% (2004) to 7.4% (2008) to 8.4% (2012). 144

NON-PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

During the November 2014 election, 6.8 million Latinos voted, indicating a voter increase of 129,000 from the November 2010 election. The Latino voting rate for the 2014 election was 27.0%, compared to 45.8% for White non-Hispanics. 145 During the non-presidential elections that took place in 2005,2010, and 2014, the Latino voting population grew from 5.8% (2005) to 6.9% (2010) to 7.3% (2014). 146

Since 1978, the number of Latinos voting in congressional elections has traditionally lagged behind the numbers of their non-Hispanic white counterparts. 147 Roughly 11.6 million Latinos registered to vote in 2008, compared to the 10.9 million who registered in 2010. With 6.8 million Latinos turning out to vote in 2014, the gap between Latino voter registration and Latino voter turnout was over 4.4 million, which was the highest recorded discrepancy in the last four decades. 148

Of the Latinos who voted in November 2014, 45.0% were women, 90.1% were between the ages of 45-64 years old, 33.2% were naturalized citizens, 31.4% had an Associate’s Degree or higher, and 53.5% were Mexican. 149

It is customary for the number of registered voters to decline between presidential and non-presidential election year cycles. It is equally important to emphasize that Latino voter registration dropped from 11.6 million in 2008 to 10.9 million in 2010 and from 13.7 million in 2012 to 12.9 million in 2014. 150

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BUSINESS

The number of Latino-owned businesses in the United States grew 46.3% over a 5-year period, climbing from 2,260,309 in 2007 to 3,307,197 in 2012. 151 152

In 2012, receipts for Latino-owned businesses totaled $517,362,008, representing an increase of 47.5% from 2007 and a total of $350,661,243. 153 154 Additionally, 288,826 Latino-owned businesses had paid employees, totaling 2.3 million employees with an annual payroll of $68.5 billion. 155

In 2014, the Latino purchasing power in the United States equaled $1.3 trillion, which was a ten year gain of 155%. Latino buying power is continuing to grow at a faster rate than that of their African-American counterparts, but still less than their Asian counterparts. 156 157

By the year 2019, it is projected that Latinos will represent 10.6% of the U.S. buying power. This historic growth is largely attributed to factors like higher birth rates, immigration numbers, and an increase in Latino-owned businesses. 158

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POPULATION GROWTH

In 2010, the Latino population was 50,477,594. Currently, it is estimated at 55,387,539, reflecting an annual growth rate of 1.2 million per year. 159 160

The Latino population increased by 7 million from 1980 to 1990, representing 6.4% of the total U.S. population and reflecting a growth rate of 245.5% (compared to 36.5% for the general population). From 1990 to 2000, Latinos grew to by 13 million and by 15 million from 2000 to 2010. In 2010, they represented 16.3% of the population. Presently, Latinos represent 17.0% of the population. 161 162

From 2010 to 2014, the Latino population increased by an additional 4.6 million, representing 17% of the general population and reflecting a growth rate of 9.7%. By comparison, the general population only grew by 3.3%. 163 164

Between 1980 to 2010, the Latino population growth rate was 245.5%, compared to a 36.5% growth rate for the general population. From 2010 to 2014, the Latino population grew 9.7%, while in comparison, the general population increased by 3.3%. 165 166 167

STATES WITH LATINO POPULATION OF 500,000 OR MORE

Over the past decade, Latino population growth rates have skyrocketed across the United States. This is largely due to rising birth and immigration rates. Currently, there are 18 states (up from 16 in 2012) that have a Latino population of 500,000 or more, which accounts for 88.1% of the total Latino population. The 18 states are listed below:

STATES WITH OVER 50% LATINO POPULATION GROWTH

From 1990 to 2000, 25 states experienced an increase of 50% or more in the Latino population. In 2010, the number of states increased to 37 and by 2014, the number grew to 45. 168

The socio-economic and political implications of Latino population growth are numerous, particularly in states that are experiencing an influx of immigrants. Change occurs as immigrants settle into states, become legal permanent residents or naturalized citizens, and register to vote in U.S. elections.

For states with significant populations of African Americans, Asians, and progressive whites, Latino population growth can be incredibly impactful on the political dynamic at the city, state, and national levels. By creating viable electoral coalitions, the nation will experience political transformation, as well as social and economic empowerment.

Some other notable facts:

  • The West is the region with the largest population of Latinos (40.2%) 169
  • Mexicans are the largest Latino group (64.1%). 170
  • Mexicans are also the dominant Latino group in 33 states. 171
  • Latinos are the largest minority in 26 states. 172
  • Ethnic/racial minorities make up the majority in 115 cities that have a total population of 200,000 or more. 173

U.S. POPULATION BY RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN 2020-2050

Current projections have highlighted Latinos as the third fastest growing population in the United States. 174 Latinos are expected to exceed 60 million by 2020 and hit 119 million by 2060, which means that Latinos will represent 28.6% of the total population. Non-Hispanic Whites will continue declining for the 3rd straight decade, while Latinos will continue on their 11th continuous decade of continuous growth; both of these trends are irreversible. 175 176 177

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